Sea water is polluted when it contains substances that cause the loss of its natural characteristics. For example:
- When the oxygen that marine creatures need to breath is lacking.
- When ocean water contains insecticides or radioactive fallout.
- When oil or tar prevent plankton from developing nutrients that other organisms on the food chain need.
- When the nutrient renewal process of upwelling currents are off.
In summary, water is polluted when the relationship between the plankton and light, plankton and other marine organism, and the sea bed and the surface are damaged.
The Causes of Pollution
Many pollutants reach the sea as a consequence of human activity. Rivers carry the fertilizers and insecticides used in agriculture into the sea. They also transport toxic waste from the factories placed on their banks. Villagesand towns throw their sewages into the seas and river.
Purifying the Water
Both industrial waste and sewages are pollutants. This is why it is necessary to cleanse water before it re-enters the water cycle through rivers, seas, and clouds.
The process of cleansing depends on the level and the type of pollutant. Some of these processes are very complaex and expensive.
Water must go through the following processes to be purified:
- Solid waste and larger particles must be filtered out and separated.
- Smaller particles are allowed to settle at the bottom of tanks or cisterns as slime or mud.
- Other particles suspended in the water are removed through further filtration and coagulation. That is by bonding the pollutants to heavier particles that settle out as sediment.
- The purified water is drained through submerged pipes that carry it a certain distance from the shore in order to disperse it in to the sea water.
Sewage (Click on the picture to view large)
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