Everything around you is made up of tiny particles called atoms. Crystals consist of atoms that are arranged in a regular repeating pattern. This gives the Crystal its fixed outer shape. Most solid substances, including metals and minerals found in rocks, are in crystal form.
Igneous rocks are usually made of crystals that form as hot magma (molten rock) cools and solidifies. Crystal may also grow when a water solution containing minerals on the surface of the Earth evaporates. These two ways are demonstrated in the first two experiments.
The type of crystal that form depend on the substances that are dissolved in the liquid. Each mineral forms crystals with a characteristic shape. You can compare the crystals from the first two projects, which use two different solutions. The final experiment demonstrates how atoms are arranged in a crystal. In a liquid, the atoms are loosely joined together and can move around, which is why a liquid flows. As a liquid solidifies, the atoms join together in a regular pattern, like a pyramid, to form a crystal. When atoms are arranged in a disorderly way, they produce a gas.
Water, measuring cup, pan, sugar, tablespoon, wooden spoon, glass jar.
After a few days or weeks, the solution starts to evaporate and the sugar in the solution will gradually begin to form crystals. The longer it is undisturbed, the larger your crystals will grow.
Carbonate, spoon, bowl, straw, cotton thread, paper clip, magnifying glass.
Small, shallow tray (such as the lid of a shoebox), marbles of five different colors.