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Continent Australia

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Capital: Canberra

Population: 20,090,437

Location: Oceania, continent between the Indian Ocean and the South Pacific Ocean

Climate:generally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east; tropical in north

Terrain:mostly low plateau with deserts; fertile plain in southeast

National holiday:Australia Day, 26 January (1788)

Festivals Celebrated: Australia Day, Anzac Day

Flag of Australia

Australia is a continent and a country. It is known as the land down under because it is below the equator.

It is one of the seven continents of the world.

The first people to live in Australia were aborigines (aboriginal means first). They were like our Native Americans. They inhabit Australia even today. Some live on reservations, some live on ranches (called stations or property) or in cities.

Australia is made up of six states and two territories. The middle part of the country is called the outback. The outback does not get very much rain and therefore is very dry. Australians generally rear sheep in the outback.Not very many people live in the outback.

January and February are the warmest months.June and July are the coldest months, with an average July temperature of about 50° F, except in the Australian Alps, where temperatures average 35° F.

The most famous animals in Australia are marsupials. A marsupial is a mammal that has a pouch to carry its young. Some kangaroos can jump 30 feet. The koala sometimes stays in the same tree for days.

One of the remarkable feature of Australia is The Great Barrier Reef. It is made up of coral and algae. Coral are tiny invertebrate animals. The Great Barrier Reef is about 1250 miles long. There is a channel of water that separates the reef from the Queensland coast. It is the largest deposit of coral in the world. It is also the world's largest living structure with spectacular beauty.

Captain James Cook claimed Australia for England in 1770. It was first used as a prison colony by the English. The first free settlers landed in Sydney in 1793. Today Sydney is Australia's largest city. The Sydney Opera House is one of the most unique buildings in the world.

Australia's national sport is Cricket.Rugby and soccer are also extremely popular. Australia is also famous for the boomerang. The aborigines used the boomerang as a weapon.


The biggest Aussie snack is Chocolate Crackles! These can be made before hand and are something that is always served at Aussie kids parties.

You need:

250 grams (9 ounces) Copha (which is vegetable shortening)
4 cups rice bubbles (crispies rice)
1 cup sifted icing sugar
3 tablespoons coca (cocoa)

Melt the copha in a saucepan over a low heat, or in a microwave oven. Mix the rice bubbles, icing sugar, coca and melted copha until well combined. Spoon mixture into cupcake paper holders and then set for 12-24 hours in the refrigerator. This makes about 24 choccy crackles.

Australian Damper

4 cups self-rising flour
1 teaspoon salt
1 tablespoon butter, softened
1 cup milk
1/2 cup water

1. Preheat oven to 425 degrees F (220 degrees C) Grease a baking sheet.

2. In a large bowl, stir together the flour and the salt. With pastry blender or your hands, cut in butter. Make a well in the center of the flour mixture and pour in the milk and water. Stir until the dough comes together. Turn the dough out onto a lightly floured surface and form into a round loaf 8 inches across. Place the loaf onto the prepared pan and using a sharp knife, cut a cross in the top.

3. Bake for 25 minutes in the preheated oven, then lower the temperature to 350 degrees F (175 degrees C) and continue to bake for an additional 5 to 10 minutes. The loaf should be golden brown and the bottom should sound hollow when tapped.

Australian map